The northernmost region of Turkmenistan with its fertile riverine oases, has been populated since ancient times. The UNESCO World Heritage site of Kunya Urgench is the best-known of various historical sites that reflect this, not the least because it was the capital of the Khorezmian Empire. Also today, the region remains a logical gateway to neighboring Uzbekistan, with two entry points, one leading directly to Nukus from present-day Kunya Urgench town, and the other one from the regional’s capital Dashoguz to Khiva. Agricultural production is crucial for the region, and most rice for Turkmenistan’s consumption is grown here. When traveling south, you enter a vast area of lowlands, ravines, salt plains and lakes and remnants of the dried-up riverbed of the ancient Uzboy River, and the ever-present Karakum Desert. When traveling east towards the point where the famous Amu Darya River exits Turkmenistan, you follow ancient caravan routes that lead to Amul (present-day Turkmenabad) or Merw (present day Mary).